Hemingway: The Sun Also Rises
Hemingway, bandaged, in front of Shakespeare and Company bookstore in Paris, 1928.
IC Library Print & Media Resources
For information about individual authors, enter a Subject search on the author: last name, first name. Most of the critical material will be found under the subheading “Criticism and interpretation,” but many other subheadings are possible for an author. Here is a sample for Hemingway, Ernest:
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961--Bibliography
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961--Biography
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961--Criticism and interpretation
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961--Criticism and interpretation--Handbooks, manuals, etc.
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961--Homes and haunts--France--Paris
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961--Knowledge--Spain
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961--Marriage
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961--Psychology
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961--Style
Hemingway, Ernest, 1899-1961. Sun also rises
Always run an Author search on an individual writer you’re researching. Although you may already have the text or texts you’ll be focusing on, Author searches often turn up interesting materials that can’t be accessed through Subject searches. In addition to all the novels and short story collections, an Author search on Hemingway, Ernest also retrieves the following:
By-line: Ernest Hemingway; selected articles and dispatches of four decades
The Ernest Hemingway audio collection
Ernest Hemingway, cub reporter; Kansas City Star stories
Ernest Hemingway on writing
A moveable feast [posthumously published memoir of the Paris years]
A moveable feast : the restored edition
Much of the most recent and authoritative criticism on an author, as well as materials with a period or topic focus, may be best accessed using broad Subject headings. Below is a small cross-section of Subject headings that could be useful for research on an American writer in the first half of the twentieth century, living and writing in Paris:
American literature--History and criticism
American literature--History and criticism--Theory, etc.
American literature--20th century--History and criticism
American fiction--20th century--History and criticism
Fiction--20th century--History and criticism
Modernism (Literature)--United States
War and literature
War in literature
War stories, American--History and criticism
World War, 1914-1918--Literature and the war
Sex role in literature
Men in literature
Literature, Modern--20th century--History and criticism
Paris (France)--Intellectual life--20th century
National characteristics, American, in literature
IC Library Databases (Articles)
Because books, book chapters/essays, and dissertations will usually not be available full text, you may wish to limit your search to "Journal article" under "Source type."
"Author's Work" and "Author as Subject" will be especially helpful search fields at finding literary criticism. And for additional search field options either click on "Show more fields," or, for the complete list, open the drop-down menus to the right of the "Anywhere" default for the top three rows of search slots. This list includes both "Literary Influence"--who influenced a particular author you have entered--and "Literary Source"--who was influenced by that particular author.
If you set up a free "My Research" account with Proquest (top right), you can save all the articles you check, all the searches you want to remember, and set up e-mail or RSS notification for any new articles that match your search terms.
JSTOR has excellent 100% full-text coverage of literary scholarship. There is no Subject searching, so remember to put titles and authors' names in quotation marks to search them as Keyword phrases--and leave authors' names in the normal first-name last-name order. Set "Limit" to "Article"--or else you may unleash an avalanche of reviews of books on your topic.
JSTOR access to journal articles begins 2-4 years prior to the present--so don't look for any criticism from the last couple of years--but coverage always extends back to the first issue of each journal--in some cases into the 19th century and beyond. This allows you, for instance, to retrieve articles responding to the early works of Ernest Hemingway from the 1920s. Set the date range "Limit" below the search slots to target an era.
Project Muse , although a smaller database, it complements JSTOR. LIke JSTOR it provides 100% full text of mostly scholarly journals, but its coverage is entirely current--mainly spanning the last 10-15 years. Muse offers a basic keyword search (be sure to put the titles of literary works in quotation marks). Once you've retrieved a set of articles you can sort them into broad categories using the Research Area options on the left.
Note: Checking the "Articles" box under Content Type before you run a search will eliminate reviews of books about your topic and leave you with just the articles on your topic.
ProQuest Research Library & Academic Search Premier are comprehensive databases and include considerable literary criticism--much of it full text. In running searches on authors, don't settle for a Keyword search on the author's name, as this will retrieve too many articles in which the author is only mentioned in passing. Instead use the specialized Subject search each provides. In ProQest enter the name, last name first, in the "Person" slot. In Academic Search Premier open the "Select a Field" drop down menu and search the name, last name first, in the "People" field.
In both databases the titles of literary works must be searched as Keyword phrases, so be sure to put them in quotation marks.
In both databases you can set a "Document Type" limit and choose "Book review" or, if it's a contemporary writer, "Interview." (For a contemporary writer you might also try an "Author" search, since many writers publish criticism and social commentary that might shed light on their creative work.)
General OneFile is another comprehensive database with considerable literary criticism, but the default Subject search forcess you to retrieve EVERYTHING on a particular author. The standard "subdivisions" by which General OneFile organizes these results--"Ethical Aspects," Political Aspects," "Social Aspects"--are broad in respect to authors.
If you wish to focus on a particular a theme, the best strategy is to open all the results from the initial Subject search and then use the the "Search within these Results" slot at the upper left to enter thematic Keywords.
If you wish to focus on a specific literary work, open "Advanced Search" and in the "Select Index" box choose "Named Work": this allows you to run a Subject search on a title.
ERIC (Ebsco interface) is an Education database where you can find many scholarly articles on the interpretation and teaching of literary texts at the levels of both secondary and higher education.
New York Times (1851-2009) offers the full text of the New York Times from 1851 up to 2006, so you can access contemporary reviews of In Our Time and The Sun Also Rises, as well as trace the arc of Hemingway's considerable literary celebrity. Enter a Keyword search, putting phrases in quotation marks. You might begin by searching in the “Citation and Abstract” field, then, if this doesn’t yield enough results, expand to the default “Citation and document text” field. And Hemingway was sufficiently written about over the entire course of his career that you will want to target particular eras by using the date range limits below the search slots.
Gateway Web Sites
- Voice of the Shuttle: One of the best gateways for traditional Humanities, as well as culture and media studies. Note the guide on American Literature.
- American Authors on the Web: Alphabetical list of online resources.
- Literary Resources--American: General resources on top; scroll down for individual authors.
- Perspectives in American Literature: Scroll down to "Chapter 7 Early Twentieth Century: Modernism," which includes a section on Hemingway.
Selected Web Sites
Virtual Hemingway: from the Hemingway Society, this is probably the most comprehensive set of links for online resources.
Ernest Hemingway: Online Resources: from the Ernest Hemingway Collection at the JFK Presidential Library, there are some interesting links here.
Tracking Hemingway; The Atlantic Monthly has compiled excerpts from articles they published about Hemingway over a span of six decades.
Ernest Hemingway Articles: From a site called "Timeless Hemingway," there's a fair amount of full text here.
Timeline of Ernest Hemingway in Paris: Pretty minimal, but worth a look.
Ernest Hemingway at the Kansas City Star: Hemingway"s first job out of high school (1917-1918). Of most interest is a virtual copy of the paper's "style sheet" that may have influenced Hemingway's early writing.
Hemingway Adventure: Michael Palin--yes, that Michael Palin--made a series about Hemingway shown on PBS. This is the supporting Web site, and although Palin remains front and center, there is some interesting material here.
Brief timeline of American Literature, Music, and Movies 1920-1929. : See what music and movies were popular the year The Sun Also Rises was published.
Nobel Prize (1954)
MLA is the citation style used by most disciplines in the Humanities. Here is my guide to the latest (2016) update of the MLA style.