RLS 33200: Research Methods


Musick, M. A, & Wilson, J. (2008). Volunteers : a social profile. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.
-- Chapter 4: Motives
-- Chapter 13: Recruitment 

Stebbins, R. A., & Graham, M. (2004). Volunteering as leisure/leisure as volunteering: An international assessment. Wallingford, UK: CABI Pub.

Heidrich, K.W. (1990). Working with volunteers in employee services and recreation programs. Champaign, IL : Sagamore Pub.

Blankenship, D. (2010). Applied research and evaluation methods in recreation. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Vaske, J. J. (2008). Survey research and analysis: Applications in parks, recreation and human dimensions. State College, Pa: Venture Pub.
-- Great chapter on creating and implementing surveys.

Mitra, A. (2011). Needs assessment: A systematic approach to data collection. Urbana: Sagamore Publishing.
-- How to collect data from citizens for the recreation professional. 


1. Search Strategy

Have fun with your search by "OR-ing" terms, trying truncation using the * symbol, and changing the drop-down menu to abstract, title or subject.

1. volunteer* or human service* or humanitarian* or philanthrop* or good samaritan* or charit*
2. motivation or personalit* or attitude*

3. disab* or handicap* or wheelchair*
4. recreation* or leisure or outdoor recreation or ski* or mountain*

2. Search Strategy

1. volunteer*
2. motivation or attitude or personalit*
3. retention or recruit*
4. research

Survey Instrument

Volunteer Functions Inventory
Clary, E., Snyder, M., Ridge, R. D., Copeland, J., Stukas, A. A., Haugen, J., & Miene, P. (1998). Understanding and assessing the motivations of volunteers: A functional approach. Journal Of Personality And Social Psychology, 74(6), 1516-1530. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.74.6.1516
-- A 30 item measure of motivation to volunteer

Special Event  volunteer motivation scale
Farrell, J. M., Johnston, M. E., & Twynam, G. (1998). Volunteer Motivation, Satisfaction, and Management at an Elite Sporting Competition. Journal Of Sport Management, 12(4), 288.
-- A 28 item measurement of  the level of satisfaction with the general volunteer experience

Motives to Volunteer 
Cnaan, R. A., & Goldberg-Glen, R. S. (1991). Measuring motivation to volunteer in human services. Journal Of Applied Behavioral Science, 27(3), 269-284. doi:10.1177/0021886391273003

Best Bets

SPORTDiscus with Full Text
This is a great tool for finding sports medicine, fitness, coaching and education articles. Be sure to include the keyword "research" if looking for research articles.
LIMIT to Peer Reviewed
Academic Search Premier
News, Magazine, and Journal articles on a wide range of topics including leisure & recreation, health care, sports, hobbies and many more. 
Limit to Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals
A database with articles on the environment and related disciplines such as agriculture, education, law, health and technology.
Business Source Premier (Original Interface)
This is a great tool for finding scholarly policy, business and economic based information.
LIMIT  to Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals
A  great tool for finding the psychology based literature.
Limit to Scholarly (Peer Reviewed) Journals
This is a great tool for finding education, health promotion, and psychosocial health articles along with research articles.
Limit to Peer Reviewed
This is a great tool for finding primary biomedical journal articles with links to some full-text.

Contact Us

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Laura Kuo

Health Sciences Librarian
(607) 274-1197

Search Argos

Citing Sources Using APA

The Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association is the style manual of choice for many disciplines in the social sciences. The current edition is the sixth (2010).

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