Citing Your Sources
Table of Contents
Citation acknowledges any source that has directly influenced your language, ideas, or arguments. You should cite not only what you quote, but also what you paraphrase.
If you don't cite, you may be guilty of plagiarism.
Elements of a Citation
Who - This is the name of the person (author, composer, artist) who is responsible for the work being cited. More rarely, it may be an institution rather than an individual, as in many government documents.
What - The title of the work.
When - The date of the item being cited. Usually, only the year is required, but if you have more specific information, you can include that as well.
Where - Where can someone who is interested in this source find it? This information may include one or more of:
- Publication title (with volume, number, and page numbers)
- URL - for example, http://www.cnn.com/2017/04/07/politics/xi-trump-summit-syria/
- DOI (digital object identifier) - for expample, 10.1016/j.nut.2015.05.021
When to Cite
In-Text Citations and Reference Lists
1. The reference list (aka bibliography). This lists the complete details of every item you cite. It is located at the end of your paper.
A full APA citation for an article might look like this:
Van der Peer, Y., & Meyer, A. (2005). Large-scale gene and ancient genome duplications. In T. R. Gregory (Ed.), The evolution of the genome. (pp. 329-368). doi:10.1016/B978-
2. In-text citations. These are mini-citations that occur within the body of your paper, either as parenthetical notes or as footnotes at the bottom of the page. These give a shorter form of the citation. Interested readers can refer to your reference list for complete details.
The in-text citation for the paper listed above might look like:
Rapid progress in genome sequencing will allow the detection of large-scale gene duplication in many species (Van der Peer & Meyer, 2005).